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Q.) How do I start feeding my baby solid food?
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the introduction of solid food between 4 months and 6
months of age. It is very important for parents to know that there is not one single way to introduce baby
food or advance baby food. With that being said, I am going to give you an example of how to introduce
baby food to your infant that I have found to be successful.

First, start with rice cereal with iron for a couple of weeks. Rice is a good starter food and is generally
well tolerated. It might take a little bit of time for your infant to get used to the spoon (you might notice
your infant tongue thrusting). Once he or she masters the spoon, we are ready to start on the Stage I
foods. Stage I foods are in the smallest jars and are the most liquid in consistency. If you would like to
make your own baby food that is perfectly fine. My advice is to model the consistency after the
consistency of the baby food in the store. Normally, I tend to start with vegetables before fruits. My
experience has been that starting with the sweet stuff makes eating vegetables more difficult. I also
normally introduce a new food every two to three days. That way if your infant has a problem with a food
you will be able to pinpoint the problem food. For the first two months the goal is to get the infant on two
meals a day. Rice cereal for breakfast and the Stage I foods for dinner. There are only a few Stage I
foods and it doesn't take long to go through all of the fruits and vegetables.

After two months, we are ready to move up to the Stage II foods and to three meals a day. The Stage II
foods are in bigger jars and are thicker in consistency. At this time, we can branch out a little bit if you
would like. Yo Baby yogurt is a good source of calcium and can help break up the monotony of rice cereal
for breakfast. You can also try some of the different kinds of cereals. Stage II meats can also be
introduced at this time. They make Stage I meats but I could never bring myself to feed my child liquid
turkey.

At nine months of age, we can try some Stage III foods. Now, many of my patients cannot do Stage III
foods because of their lumpiness. I remember watching my son throw up Stage III spaghetti, and I'm
still scarred by the experience. Around nine months, you will notice that your child has developed a pincer
grasp where he or she can grasp things between the thumb and forefinger. At this time, it is o.k. to
introduce the Gerber fruit and veggie puffs which dissolve in the mouth. Once your child masters the
puffs, you can try the cheerios which are gummed up and swallowed. The one food that I find that
provides the biggest choking hazard is the Gerber Biter Biscuits. Infants gnaw on them until they get
soggy and a large piece breaks off. I would stay away from them. If you need a teething food, I like the
Gerber Zwieback toast. It is very messy but it doesn't break off in large pieces as easily.

At one year of age, it is time to start transitioning to table food. It is also the time to be off the bottle
and on a sippy cup. Keeping the child on a bottle promotes dental caries and dental malocclusions. I have
always found taking the bottle away to be harder on the parents than on the child. Be strong! If your baby
is formula fed, it is time to move over to whole milk or soy milk. If your baby is breast fed, keep breast
feeding for as long as you want. At one year of age it is o.k. to diversify foods as long as we stay away
from foods that are choking hazards like nuts, popcorn, etc.

Q.) When do I start my child on juice and how much per day?
Most of the studies now say that a lot of juice makes for short, fat kids. Juice is sugar water and
children who drink a lot of it are not getting the nutrition that they need. I don't see the need to start
juice before nine months of age and no more than four ounces a day. My son generally only gets juice at
Sunday School and birthday parties.

Q.) My mother says I should give my baby water, should I?
Keep in mind that babies grow a tremendous amount in the first year of life. They double their weight on
average by four months of age and triple their weight by a year of age. If a baby fills up on water, they
are not getting the fat, protein, and carbohydrates they need to grow. Plus, breastmilk and formula are
both composed largely of water and babies get the water plus the nutrients they need from breastmilk
or formula. Thus, I tend to discourage giving babies water the first year of life.

Q.) What do you consider a fever in a newborn or infant?
For the first three months of life, I consider fever to be a rectal temperature greater than 100.4 or 38
degrees Celsius. Greater than three months of age, I consider a high fever to be greater than 102.9 or
39 degrees Celsius. For the first year of life, I always prefer a rectal temperature because it is the
most accurate and the most representative of core body temperature.

Q.) What kind of bugspray should I use?
For the first year of life I prefer an all natural product like those that contain citronella. DEBT is a toxin
and I would rather stay away from DEBT containing products if possible. After the first year of life,
children spend more time outdoors and parents find that the all natural products don't work as well. At
this time we can use a DEBT containing product but I would recommend 10% DEBT or less. A good
example would be Kid's Off. Spray the outside of your child's clothing. Then, spray your hands with the
bug spray and then apply it to your child's exposed areas.

Q.) What kind of sunscreen do you recommend?
I like Water Babies by Coppertone. The bottle says "down to six months of age." I've found it to be well
tolerated down to four months of age. Younger than four months and they really shouldn't be in the sun in
the first place.

Q.) When can I take my newborn out in public?
Most people would probably say six weeks. However, I would prefer if you kept outside contact to a
minimum for the first twelve weeks. There are a lot of nasty germs out there and I would like to keep
them away from your baby.

Q.) How do I go about getting my baby to sleep through the night?
The best way to get a baby to sleep through the night is to have them in their own crib in their own room.
If you want to use a bassinet, it is alright to do so for the first month of life. Remember, a baby should
always sleep on his BACK. Crib death or SIDS is eight times more likely if a baby sleeps on his stomach
and twice as likely if a baby sleeps on his side.
Between one month and six weeks, it is time to get the baby into his own room. A baby that sleeps next to
the parents in a bassinet will never sleep all night because at the slightest whimper mom will race over to
tend to the baby. Once the baby is in his own room, you can start to push him a little bit to get him to sleep
longer. Pediatricians differ on how aggressive to be to get a baby to sleep through the night.
By two months of age, a baby should be able to give you a minimum of a 5 hour stretch at night and by four
months a baby should sleep all night. Generally, when a baby weighs about twelve pounds, he should really
start sleeping well.
A bigger problem that I see is the nine month old or one year old that does not sleep through the night.
Yikes! This child has developed a bad habit and all bad habits are hard to break. The biggest mistake that
I see parents make is that they finally get fed up with the situation and they let the child cry for an hour
or two with no change in behavior. This approach never works because the child has been trained that if he
cries the parent will come. So that child will cry for eight hours if need be. You have to tackle this
problem over one to two weeks. First, you have to get the young child to soothe himself and put himself to
sleep. Put him in bed awake at bedtime and give him five minutes to cry before going into the room. The
next night make it ten minutes. Each night make it five minutes longer than the previous night. After a
week, the baby will put himself to sleep. Now, if the child wakes up in the middle of the night, the parent
needs to take the same approach. Let the child cry five minutes the first night, ten minutes the second,
etc. After a week or two, the parent should have successfully modified the child's behavior.

Q.) What is normal pooping for my newborn?
When a baby is first born they pass black stools known as meconium. As mother's milk supply is
established or as she starts to feed formula, the baby's bowel movements change from black to green to
yellow. Yellow, seedy, and very loose is just perfect for a newborn. Don't be surprised if your newborn
has a bowel movement after every feeding.
As your newborn gets older, the bowel movements may change color, get a little firmer, and may occur
less commonly. All of this is normal. Some infants will only have a bowel movement every three to four
days. As long as the movements are soft and not rock hard pebbles, this is o.k.
Babies also tend to strain with bowel movements. This is generally normal as well. Babies spend most of
their time on their backs and so it makes sense to have to work a little bit harder to have a bowel
movement.

Q.) What do I do if your office is closed?
If it is after 5 p.m. or on the weekend please call our After Hours number at 478-405-6093. You will get
a registered nurse on the phone. She will be able to answer many of your questions, but if you need a
physician, she will be able to page the physician on call.
We also have Pediatrics after Hours in Macon. It is open from 5p.m. to 11 p.m. Monday through Friday and
10 a.m. to 10 p.m. on Saturday and Sunday. It is located one block behind my office and sees patients on a
walk-in basis.